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Health Issues

List of all health issues

Malaria

ICD10: ICD10_B50-B54

Background

Malaria is caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female mosquitoes. P. falciparum is the most deadly malaria parasite and the most prevalent in Africa, where malaria cases and deaths are heavily concentrated. The first symptoms of malaria – fever, headache, chills and vomiting – usually appear between 10 and 15 days after the mosquito bite. Without prompt treatment, P. falciparum malaria can progress to severe illness and death.

WHO recommends a multi-pronged strategy to prevent, control and eliminate malaria. Key interventions include: the use of insecticide-treated mosquito nets and indoor residual spraying, diagnostic testing, and treatment of confirmed cases with effective anti-malarial medicines. In recent years, these measures have dramatically lowered the malaria burden in many settings. Malaria transmission continues in many countries around the world however, and causes hundreds of thousands of deaths each year.

For more information about Malaria, please visit this page about Malaria.

Burden of Disease

Global disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) 55,111,091 2012
Global estimated number of deaths 438 000 [236 000-635 000] 2015
Global estimated number of cases 214 000 000 [149 000 000-303 000 000] 2015
Total number of under-five deaths from malaria 564,000 2010
Global malaria incidence (per 100 000 population) 4,082 2010
Incidence in African Region* 20,912
Incidence in Americas Region 193
Incidence in Eastern Mediterranean Region 2,490
Incidence South-East Asia Region 1,772
Incidence in Western Pacific Region 103
Unmet need for family planning (%) 12.00 2012
Births attended by skilled health personnel (%) 74.00 2014
Maternal mortality ratio (per 100 000 live births) - Interagency estimates 216 2015
Global number of reported cases 215,636 2013
Global estimated number of prevalent tuberculosis cases 13 000 000 [11 000 000-14 000 000] 2014
Global estimated number of incident tuberculosis cases 9 600 000 [9 100 000-10 000 000] 2014
TB patients with known HIV status (%) 51.00 2014
Confirmed cases of RR-/MDR-TB 122,789 2014
Confirmed cases of MDR-TB 85,085 2012
Tuberculosis treatment success under DOTS (%) 85.00 2006
Treatment success rate for patients treated for MDR-TB (%) 50.00 2012
Treatment success rate: XDR-TB cases (%) 26.00 2012
Estimated number of people (all ages) living with HIV 35 000 000 [33 200 000 - 37 200 000] 2013
Estimated antiretroviral therapy coverage among people living with HIV (%) in low-income countries 38 2013
Status of endemicity for blinding trachoma 50 2012
Status of yaws endemicity 13 2013
Status of endemicity of cutaneous leishmaniasis 82 2013
Status of endemicity of visceral leishmaniasis 74 2013
Total number of reported cases 129,067 2013

*These Regions correspond to the WHO Regions

The Global Health Observatory provides aggregate data for meningitis only, which means that the numbers provided in this section refer to bacterial meningitis, meningococcal meningitis and meningitis due to unspecified causes.

Note: The data in this section are derived from WHO's Global Health Observatory.

Funding for R&D

According to analyses by Policy Cures' G-FINDER survey, were spent in on R&D for new products for Malaria. This constituted 0 %% of the 0M that were spent on global neglected disease R&D for new products in total in .

There are no data available from Policy Cures' G-FINDER survey about Malaria.

Note: The data from Policy Cures' G-FINDER survey are limited to funding for product development. Furthermore, the data are collected using specific definitions for diseases and limitations in terms of products to ensure that the data concern diseases that A) disproportionately affect people in developing countries, B) for which there is a need for new products, and C) for which there is market failure in developing these new products. For Malaria, this means that data on funding for the conduct of basic research, and for the development of drugs, preventive vaccines, diagnostics and vector control products is included. Importantly, the funding reflected here includes the total amount allocated for different malaria strains, including <i>P. falciparium and P. vivax</i> and other and/or unspecified malaria strains. Care should be taken when interpreting this R&D funding data in conjunction with other data on this page because of potential differences in scope and other confounding factors. See the WHO Global Observatory on Health R&D User Guide for more details.

R&D pipeline

This section describes what is known about health technologies (such as drugs, vaccines or diagnostics) that are in the R&D pipeline for Malaria. For this health issue there is/are 1 data source(s) that has/have provided R&D pipeline data to the WHO Global Observatory on Health R&D:

Drugs

Number of drugs in development
in preclinical developmentin clinical developmentTotal
 

Vaccines

Number of vaccines in development
in preclinical developmentin clinical developmentTotal
 

Diagnostics

Total number of diagnostics in development
 

Note on all R&D pipeline analyses: Data on products in the pipeline are shown for three types of products (drugs, vaccines and diagnostics) and only when a data source has collected data on that product type. Clinical development stage data are much more reliable than preclinical development stage data; it is likely that more products are in preclinical development than is publicly known. Presented preclinical data exclude discovery stage products. For diagnostics only the total number of products in development is reported because the distinction between various stages of development is less clear for this group of products. Percentages for types of developers and product types (for drugs) do not add to 100% because categories can overlap. See the User Guide of the Global Observatory on Health R&D for more information about the R&D pipeline data presented here, for descriptions of the data sources that have provided these data (and their limitations) and for an overview of all classifications in use by the WHO Global Observatory on Health R&D, such as for R&D stage.

Clinical trials

There are no registered clinical trials for in the ICTRP database

About the WHO ICTRP: the WHO ICTRP is the most inclusive global data source on clinical trials; it combines data from 16 clinical trial registries around the world.


For the WHO ICTRP database, some of the data are classified using categories that are not mutually exclusive. For example, a trial can recruit in multiple countries and regions. Therefore, such data cannot be represented as a stacked bar-chart as above. To be able to display the WHO ICTRP data disaggregated by the UN region in which the trials are recruiting, here below we show the data from the WHO ICTRP as a line graph.


Note: The graphs include both trials that are recruiting participants and trials that are not. More information on the search methodology and classifications used to develop these graphs can be found in the User Guide of the WHO Global Observatory on Health R&D. These data were last updated on 29 April 2016.

Publications

In 1900 there were 0 publications on PubMed indexed as being about Malaria. The figure below displays how the number of publications for Malaria developed over time.

There are no data available for medical publication about Malaria.

pubMedSearch
The WHO Global Observatory on Health R&D is an open data platform that provides access to data that have mostly been developed by other data sources. WHO provides access to these data, but the data are not necessarily endorsed by WHO. There are several other limitations to the data, in particular that different data sources may use different definitions and classification systems (as a result, data from different data sources are not always easily comparable). More information about the limitations of the data on this platform can be found in the WHO Global Observatory on Health R&D User Guide. All use of the WHO Global Observatory on Health Research and Development (R&D) is subject to the Terms and Conditions of Use.